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Title:
Effects of Pulsed and Sinusoidal Electromagnetic Fields on Rat Testes
Authors:  Selcuk Tunik, Ph.D., Ozlem Pamukcu Baran, Ph.D., Veysi Akpolat, M.D., Ph.D., Ercan Ayaz, M.D., Yusuf Nergiz, Ph.D., M. Salih Celik, Ph.D., and Ozkan Yumusak, M.D.
  Objective: To investigate the role of 50-Hz extremely low frequency pulsed (PEMF) and sinusoidal (SEMF) electromagnetic fields on the testis using a rat model.
Study Design:
Twenty-seven male Wistar albino rats were used. The rats were divided into three groups (n=9 each): sham group, SEMF group, and PEMF group. The SEMF and PEMF groups (pulse time: 20 milliseconds, pulse frequence: 50 Hz) were subjected to 1.5 mT, 50 Hz exposure 6 hours a day, 5 days a week for 28 days in methacrylate boxes. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections were stained with H-E and PAS. In addition, E-cadherin and type IV collagen expressions were examined immunohistochemically.
Results:
Seminiferous tubule basement membranes decreased with EMFs, especially those treated with SEMF. In addition, expression levels of E-cadherin on seminiferous epithelium decreased in PEMF and SEMF groups. The expression level of type IV collagen was also decreased in perivascular and seminiferous tubule basement membrane as compared to that in the sham group.
Conclusion:
PEMF and SEMF have adverse effects on the testis at a histopathological level. EMF leads to a decrease in E-cadherin and type IV collagen expression levels.
Keywords:  cadherins, cell adhesion, collagen, cytoplasm, E-cadherin, EMF exposure, electromagnetic fields, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, type IV collagen
   
   
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