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Title:
Preparation and Properties of Chitosan-Based Thermosensitive Hydrogel and Its Positive Influence on the Stability in Dental Implant System as Sealant and Lubricant
Authors:  Chunqing Ye, M.M., Xinjie Cai, M.D., Fushi Wang, M.D., Yi Zhou, M.D., Tao Jiang, M.D., and Yining Wang, M.D.
  Objective: In order to reduce complications accompanied with dental implant restoration, this study strives to prepare a novel sealant and lubricant that can be used in dental implant systems as well as to evaluate its characteristics.
Study Design:
Chitosan (CS), β-glycerophosphate pentahydrate (β-GP), and nano silver (nAg) were used to prepare thermosensitive hydrogel. According to the different volume ratios of CS to β-GP, 3 experimental groups were established, namely 16/4, 13/7, and 10/10 groups. Their morphology, composition, and chemical properties were analyzed via SEM, EDS, and FTIR. In addition, the effect of the hydrogel on the stability of dental implant-abutment connection was investigated by removal torque test combined with dynamic cyclic loading experiment. The maximum fracture load was measured under different lubricating conditions by electronic universal testing machine. The cytotoxicity and in vitro antibacterial effect of the hydrogel were examined respectively by CCK-8 test and the spread plate method.
Results:
The CS/β-GP/nAg thermosensitive hydro-gel was successfully prepared in this study, which was found to be a porous structure through SEM. The removal torque test and the dynamic cyclic loading experiment showed that the removal torque of the experimental group was greater than that of the control group. Furthermore, the single load-to-fracture test indicated that the 16/4 group had the greatest maximum bearing load. The in vitro cytotoxicity test using rat bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs) and human gingival fibroblast cells (hGFCs) showed no cytotoxicity in all 3 groups. The 3 experimental groups had obvious antibacterial effects against E. coli, S. aureus, and P. gingivalis.
Conclusion:
A nontoxic antibacterial CS/β-GP/nAg thermosensitive hydrogel for lubricating purpose was successfully fabricated. When the volume ratio of CS to β-GP was 16/4, this thermosensitive hydrogel demonstrated better sealing and lubricating abilities and had a positive influence on the reliability of dental implant-abutment connection.
Keywords:  abutment, dental implant, dental implant restoration, dental sealant, lubrication, thermosensitive hydrogel
   
   
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